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Fogging Machines: Understanding their types and working

What are the different types of Fogging Machines?

Man using a fogging machine

The arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic was surely a shock. The world wasn’t prepared for this pandemic. We lacked a conscious plan to effectively eliminate an organism that is believed to be on the threshold of life.

It would be an understatement if we don’t recognize the COVID-19 weapons. Right from the respirators that prevented the entry of the coronavirus to the hand sanitizers which killed the pathogens in the absence of soap & water are highly regarded. What about disinfectant fogging machines?

Though, one COVID-19 weapon didn’t gain much mainstream popularity. It must be looked upon the fact that many COVID-19 weapons before the pandemic were seldom used in our daily life.

Fogging machines or also known as fogger machines are very widely used in multiple industries like agriculture, healthcare, manufacturing & production, pest control, pollution control, and entertainment too! 

We need to acknowledge the role of fogging machines during the pandemic & in the post-pandemic time. In this article, we will briefly achieve our motto. The article discusses the different types of fog machines with their most important applications.

Fogging Machines:

What is a Fogging Machine?

A fogging machine or a fogger machine (also known as a fog machine) is a piece of equipment that is capable of converting liquid (chemical) into dense fog or vapor for odor control, pollution control, pest control, disinfection, and many more. The liquid that is about to be converted into fog or vapor is called fog juice. 

What is Fog Juice?

Fog juice is actually a mixture of two liquids. Both the liquids usually play an equally important role in achieving the effects that are expected. To help achieve the vaporization of the fog juice, one of the liquids must readily get converted into the vapor phase, while the other plays a major role in the task intended to be achieved.

Glycerin and water (preferably distilled) combine to form a fog juice, usually used in Halloween parties & for other entertainment purposes. For disinfection, one of the liquids used must be a disinfectant, while in pest control, instead a pesticide is used.

Fogger Machines


In the case of glycerine & distilled water, more amount of glycerine leads to thicker fog (up to a certain limit). So, the fog juice proportion plays a major role in the type of fog that is achieved.

How does a Fogging Machine work?

The basic working principle of a fogging machine is converting the fog juice (liquid) into vapor (or fog) by the application of either heat or pressure. Now, based on whether the conversion takes place by heat or by pressure helps us to classify the fogger machines.


  1. We are specifically mentioning the fluid-based fogging machines, there are other modified versions of fogging machines too.
  2. There are Dry Ice Fogger Machines that work on the principle of sublimation. Dry ice is immersed into warm water that causes the formation of vapor phase carbon dioxide that interacts with the atmospheric moisture to form fog.

Types of Fogging Machines:

Broadly, the two types of fogger machines are thermal fogging machines & cold fogger machines. Thermal fogger machines use the application of heat to convert the fog juice into dense fog. Whereas, cold fogger machines use the application of pressure to form the vapor.

Thermal Fogger Machines

Thermal Fogging Machines:-

In the thermal fogging machines, the heat generated is used to convert the fog juice into dense fog. How is the heat generated? They can be generated either by the burning of fuel or by providing electricity. 

There is a misconception that thermal fogging machines directly generate dense fog. Actually, it forms a hot vaporized fog juice that then comes in contact with the atmosphere. The temperature difference between the two entities is the reason for the formation of fog.

The fog juice stored in the storage tanks is sent by the pump assembly to the heating assembly. The heating assembly is a part of the fogger machine where the fog juice is heated to high temperatures and then pushed out to the atmosphere from the nozzle.

Thermal fogging machines are widely used for disinfection, pest control & odor control. They have played a vital role in the elimination of Malaria, Dengue, and other mosquito-related diseases. Even today, thermal fogging machines are widely used in mosquito control. 

Advantages of Thermal Fogging Machines:-

  1. They can be used in both indoor & outdoor applications. (Though not recommended for indoor applications)
  2. They work with both water-based & oil-based fog juices. (Mostly used for oil-based fog juices)
  3. They are more efficient than any other type of fogging machine.
  4. They produce dense & visible fog. (This can be a requirement in certain applications)

Cold Fogging Machines:-

Cold fogging machines use air pressure to convert fog juice into vapor. They mostly run on electricity. There are cold fogging machines that are rechargeable which makes them completely wireless while they are being used.

ULV Fogging Machines are a type of fogging machine that produces vapor droplets of the size between 1 μm to 50 μm. ULV stands for Ultra Low Volume, indicating the low amount of fog juice required for the fogging machine. They are widely used in pest control, spraying herbicides, disinfection & sanitization.  

ULV Fogger Machines


During the pandemic & even the post-pandemic phase, cold fogger machines, especially the ULV fogging machines played a major role in disinfection, surface decontamination & sanitation. 

Check out The TrueGuard Home Disinfectant Spraying Fogger Machine by True PPE.

Advantages of Cold Fogging Machines:-

  1. They can be used in both indoor & outdoor applications, but mostly they are used for indoor applications.
  2. They work with both water-based & oil-based fog juices. (Mostly used for water-based fog juices)
  3. They are one of the most economical fogging machines.
  4. They produce invisible fog & can reach hard-to-reach spaces effectively.
  5. They are mostly silent with very little noise produced.
  6. They are available in compact sizes.


  1. Pandemic & post-pandemic scenarios ensured the implementation of high hygiene & sanitation standards. This paved a way for the arrival of face masks, respirators, hand sanitizers, fogging machines.
  2. Even before the arrival of the pandemic, fogging machines were widely used in many industries like the entertainment industry, agriculture, animal husbandry, healthcare, and many more.
  3. Fogging machines convert liquid fog juice into vapor or fog with the application of either heat or air pressure.
  4. Thermal fogger machines are usually used for outdoor purposes and are considered to be highly efficient.
  5. ULV fogging machines are a type of cold fogger machine widely used in indoor disinfection.