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Everything you need to know about thermal fogger machine!

What is a Thermal Fogger Machine?

To understand the term 'Thermal fogger machine', let’s break it into two parts, first is ‘Thermal’. It is named after the working principle which is heating, and thermal simply means ‘caused by or related to heat or temperature’. A second part is a fogger machine which means a machine that aids in producing and propagating fog. Fogger machines use a fluid (a usual mixture of liquids). This fluid is often called fog juice.

Thermal fogger machine

Working Principle of a Thermal Fogger Machine:

As previously mentioned, thermal fogger machines use the application of heat. They use this heat to vaporize the fog juice. This fog juice can be fungicide, insecticide, or a disinfectant. There is a provision of a storage tank that holds the fog juice. The volume can be anywhere between 1L to 10L. There is a pump assembly present inside the fogger machine which pumps the fog juice from the storage tank to the heat assembly. The pumping process is initiated by a trigger that is operated manually by the user.

Heat assembly is the place where the fog juice is elevated to higher temperatures, thus converting liquid to vapor. The fog juice enters the zone of high temperature and vapor formation takes place. Further, the nozzle of the thermal fogger machine then throws the vaporized fog juice. This vaporized fog juice then comes in contact with the atmosphere. The temperature difference between the hot vapor and cool air condenses the vapor and creates fog or mist.

In short, the actual process of a thermal fogger machine is to completely covert the liquid fog juice into vapor form by the application of heat. The temperatures can escalate as high as 1000°C. The thermal fogger machine produces one of the smallest micron diameter particles. Due to this, these particles have a long reach. The particles fall in the category of ultra-fine and have a range of 1-50 µm.

Based on the mode of heat generation in the heat assembly there are two types of thermal fogger machines, namely,

  • Fuel fogger machine: It uses fuel (mostly propane or gasoline) to generate heat.
  • Electric fogger machine: It uses electricity to generate heat.

Comparison and Differences between Thermal Fogger machine and Cold Fogger machine:

Thermal fogger machines and cold fogger machines are compared because they produce somewhat a very similar particle diameter. Both these fogger machines work on different sets of operating principles. Differences between these fogger machines are:

  • Operating principle: Fogger machines convert the liquid into vapor. While the thermal fogger machines use heat for the conversion, cold fogger machines use air pressure.
  • Efficiency: Thermal fogger machines are considered to be much more efficient than cold fogger machines. It is due to either a low concentration of fog juice used or less amount of energy used by the thermal fogger machines.
  • Thermal fogger machines are usually used for oil-based fogging (though water-based fogging is also possible) whereas cold fogger machines are usually used for water-based fogging.
  • Cold fogger machines are more economical than thermal fogger machines.
  • The fog produced from thermal fogger machines is dense and visible while cold fogger machines produce invisible fog.
  • Thermal fogger machines use more amount of fuel than cold fogger machines.
  • Thermal fogger machines are louder than cold fogger machines.

Uses and Applications of Thermal Fogger Machines:

Fogger Machines are used for indoor and outdoor purposes. Mostly, thermal fogger machines are used for outdoor applications. ULV fogger machines are preferred and widely used for indoor purposes. The most common use of thermal fogger machines is in pest control. Thermal fogger machines are considered the best for hard-to-reach places.

Why are Thermal Fogger Machines not used for indoor purposes?

There are few reasons for it,

  • High Temperature: Thermal fogger machines reach a temperature of about 1000°C, and hence owing to safety reasons, thermal fogger machines are not preferred for indoor use.
  • Fuel-based thermal fogger machines contain inflammable liquids that can cause mishaps in closed indoor areas.
  • If the temperature of the heat assembly of a fogger machine doesn’t reach the right temperature before the process of fogging then the fog juice can start dripping. This can form irremovable stains on the floor.



Thermal fogger machines are mostly used in areas with large open spaces.

  • AGRICULTURE: In protecting plants from fungi, insects, and pests.
  • ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: To protect animals from harmful insects, fungal and pathogenic diseases.
  • WAREHOUSES AND GRANARIES: To safeguard grains and other farms' produce from insects and pests.
  • DISINFECTION: They are also used for disinfection and sanitation purposes of commercial and residential buildings.
  • INSECT CONTROL: They are widely used to restrict and prohibit the growth of insects like mosquitoes, flies, and other insect vectors.

Importance of Choosing the Right Fogger Machine:
Using the right fogger machine, one can save a lot of money. The money is saved because the amount of fog juice used depends upon the fogger machine. If the fogger machine is used for agricultural purposes, the fog produced should be dense and thick. Such a fog is useful and effective in pest, fungal, and insect control. And, thermal fogger machine is the best for agricultural purposes. Precaution should be taken that the fogger machines used should be compatible with pharmaceutical-grade ingredients and FDA-approved chemicals. Preferably, only environment-friendly chemicals should be used.

Role of Thermal Foggers in eradicating crop diseases:

Thermal foggers can fight pests, insects, and fungal diseases. Thermal foggers have proved effective in fighting plant diseases like odium leaf disease and phytophthora botryose in the rubber plants, and Ganoderma basal stem rot and Curvularia leaf spot in the oil palm trees. Thermal foggers have shown good results for plants wherein leaves form a closed canopy. The thermal fog which is produced reaches the canopy which is at a certain height. The canopy traps the fog and in turn, the fog settles on the leaf. The best time to apply the fog is in the early morning. Hence, thermal foggers have better results.


  • What is the prime advantage of thermal foggers over cold foggers in outdoor use?

The fog produced by thermal fogger machines is dense and thick and quite visible to the naked eye. This gives better control over the reach of the fog. Whereas, cold fogger machines usually produce a transparent fog. It becomes difficult to estimate the reach of such a fog.

  • Can the thermal fogger machine be used for disinfection of indoor commercial complexes?

Thermal foggers aren’t recommended for indoor uses. Instead, one can opt for ULV fogger machines.