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Thermal Fogger vs ULV Fogger Sprayer - Which one should you choose?

Thermal Fogger vs ULV Fogger Sprayer

Thermal Fogging vs ULV Fogging

Thermal Foggers and ULV (Ultra-Low Volume) Fogger Sprayers are distinguished tools in pest control, disinfection, and vector management. Their unique attributes and operational methodologies set them apart, catering to diverse applications with a range of advantages and limitations. The article delves into a comprehensive comparison of these fogging apparatuses, dissecting their key features, operational principles, applications, strengths, and constraints.

Key Features:

Thermal Foggers:

  • Heat-Driven Mechanism - These foggers harness heat to vaporize the liquid solution, generating a dense fog.
  • High Fog Output - Thermal foggers exhibit the capability to yield substantial fog volumes within a brief span.
  • Particle Precision - Emitting diminutive particles, thermal foggers effectively infiltrate dense vegetation and intricate recesses.

ULV Foggers:

  • Cold Fogging Technology - Unlike thermal foggers, ULV foggers do not rely on heat, utilizing mechanical means to disperse fine droplets.
  • Fine Particle Dispersion - ULV foggers excel at producing minuscule droplets, ensuring comprehensive coverage and access to confined spaces.
  • Chemical Versatility - These foggers adeptly administer an array of liquid chemicals, encompassing water-based and oil-based solutions.

For details, check out our blog on ULV fogging.

Working Principles:

Thermal Foggers: 

In the realm of thermal foggers, the essence lies in employing heat to transmute the liquid concoction into a vapor, which subsequently condenses into fog particles upon exposure to colder surroundings. This metamorphosis unfolds in the combustion chamber, where the solution encounters elevated temperatures, thereby affecting vaporization. Here's how it works -

  1. Liquid Solution - The fogging solution, typically a mixture of water and oil-based insecticide or disinfectant, is poured into the thermal fogger's tank.
  2. Combustion Chamber - The fogger has a combustion chamber that uses a heat source (usually propane or electricity) to heat the fogging solution.
  3. Vaporization - As the solution enters the heated chamber, it vaporizes into tiny droplets due to the high temperature.
  4. Dispersion - The vaporized solution exits the fogger through a nozzle, and upon contact with the cooler air outside, it condenses into fine fog particles, creating a fog.

ULV Fogger Sprayers: 

ULV Fogging

ULV foggers orchestrate fog creation by atomizing the liquid solution into minute droplets using high-speed rotary or disc atomizers. This atomized mist is propelled into the air, endowing it with the quintessential characteristics of fog. Here's how it works -

  1. Liquid Solution - The fogging solution, which can be water-based or oil-based, is placed in the ULV fogger's tank.
  2. Atomization: The fogger uses a high-speed rotary or disc atomizer to break the liquid solution into tiny droplets.
  3. Dispersion: The fogger propels the fine droplets into the air, creating a fog cloud consisting of particles smaller than those produced by conventional foggers.

Note - A ULV fogger sprayer operates without heat and generates fog using high-pressure air or a cold fogging mechanism. It produces very fine droplets (between 5-50 microns in size) that remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period.


Thermal Foggers:

  • Tailored for outdoor environments and spaces with limited ventilation.
  • Prized for mosquito control, managing flying insects, and addressing extensive outdoor pest concerns.
  • Their capacity to penetrate intricate locales and cover vast expanses makes them outdoor stalwarts.

ULV Fogger Sprayers:

  • They are endorsed for indoor (pest control & disinfection) and outdoor settings (agriculture), rendering them versatile and adaptable.
  • Adept at disinfecting enclosed spaces, battling pests in residential realms, and addressing vector control requirements even with limited ventilation.
  • Notably efficacious for wide-area disinfection and the dispersal of diverse solutions.

If you want to know more about ULV foggers applications, then check out the blog on ULV fogging for mosquitoes.


Thermal Foggers:

Thermal Fogging
  • Fewer quantities of liquid insecticides or disinfectants are required to produce a dense fog cloud covering vast areas making them environment & cost-friendly.
  • Distinctive fog density is invaluable for concealed or dense spaces.
  • An ideal outdoor ally, potent against flying insects and expansive pest issues.
  • Prompt coverage of substantial terrains due to conspicuous fog.
  • Navigates challenging outdoor settings, traversing foliage with exceptional efficiency.
  • Efficacious in neutralizing odors and tackling disease vectors in sprawling outdoor expanses.

ULV Fogger Sprayers:

  • The non-heat fogging process lends itself to indoor environments, garnering broad suitability.
  • Extensive suspension time for fine droplets enhances coverage.
  • Prized for indoor sanitation endeavors.
  • Effectively against a gamut of pests, both indoors and outdoors.
  • Vital in large-scale disinfection for public spaces, medical establishments, and warehousing.
  • A dependable asset for agricultural applications, reaching fields, and greenhouses alike.
  • ULV fogger sprayers create fog with droplets that are smaller than those produced by conventional foggers, thus requiring fewer quantities of liquid pesticides, insecticides, or disinfectants. 


Thermal Foggers:

  • The visible fog might be incompatible with discreet indoor applications.
  • Heat-involved processes can pose constraints on chemical compatibility.
  • Not recommended for indoor use due to smoke emission and residue risks.
  • Potential for heat to degrade chemicals or compromise effectiveness.
  • Environmental implications due to oil-based carrier solutions.

ULV Fogger Sprayers:

ULV Fogging vs Thermal Fogging
  • May lag behind thermal foggers in outdoor efficacy.
  • Minuscule droplets might struggle with intricate or hidden spots.
  • Limited penetration of dense foliage or crevices.
  • Certain chemicals may degrade or become less potent in atomized form.
  • Susceptibility to wind dispersal outdoors.

Don’t forget to check out our blog on ULV fogging machines for more information.


Discerning the choice between a thermal fogger and a ULV fogger hinges on the particular application and context. Thermal foggers excel in conquering outdoor pest challenges, while ULV foggers shine in the indoor realm, particularly in disinfection scenarios. Optimal utilization demands meticulous consideration of chemical specifications and regulatory frameworks, underlining the strategic and informed approach these foggers warrant.